Gambling is the wagering of something of value, such as money or goods, on an event whose outcome is based solely on chance. It does not include bona fide business transactions valid under law, such as the purchase or sale at a future date of securities or commodities, contracts of indemnity or guaranty and life, health or accident insurance.
Research shows that people who gamble often have a genetic predisposition to thrill-seeking behaviours and impulsivity. Their brains may also be less able to control risk-taking behaviour, and they have trouble weighing up the risks and benefits of their actions. In some cases, this can lead to gambling addiction.
Problem gambling has a profound and wide-ranging impact on individuals, families, communities and societies. It can harm relationships, impair work or study performance, and cause financial difficulties. It can even result in homelessness, suicide or criminal activity. Problem gambling is a complex issue, and it is difficult to measure its effects.
To help understand how gambling works, it is helpful to consider its different components. The first is the choice of what to bet on, for example a football match or a scratchcard. This is matched to a set of odds, such as 5/1 or 2/1, which determine how much money you could win if the bet is successful. The next step is the actual act of betting. This can be done online, in person or over the telephone. It is important to be aware of the risks involved in gambling, and it is important not to place too much importance on winnings.
While many people do not have a problem with gambling, some do. These people may gamble excessively, resulting in significant negative impacts on their lives. This can lead to problems at work or school, strain relationships with family members and friends, and result in serious debt. Problem gamblers may feel guilty or ashamed about their gambling behaviour and may conceal it from others. They may lie to family members or therapists about their gambling, and they might even steal money to fund their activities.
A key challenge in understanding the causes of gambling harm is defining what constitutes harmful behaviour. The definitions used by public health agencies and in the scientific literature have evolved, but they are not consistent with each other. One of the most difficult issues is the conflation of the term harm with the consequence of the behaviour, which is reflected in the use of the word “losses” rather than “harms” on screening instruments such as the PGSI.
Longitudinal studies can provide valuable information about the etiology of gambling disorders, but they have a number of limitations. These include the enormous funding required to support longitudinal research; the difficulty of maintaining a research team over a long time period; and the possibility that the time-period effect may confound results. However, the benefits of longitudinal research outweigh these limitations. For example, longitudinal data can identify factors that moderate and exacerbate a gambler’s participation in the activity and thus can be more precise and theory based than crosssectional data.